The history of meat processing
In Kievan Rus by our ancestors along with farming engaged in cattle breeding, hunting and fishing. This determined the traditional set of products in the diet of the Russian people.
Of course, in ancient times the main source of animal protein was the meat of animals and fish. Horsemeat in the diet of the Russian people did not play a significant role, although the ritual of the ban on its use before the spread of Christianity was not. In the Chronicles mention about eating horse meat, but it is always about exceptional cases – hunger campaigns, the siege of cities, etc. (primary chronicle, Laurentian list, the year 964, 971, etc.).
Veal in Russia long time did not eat, and its use for food Dmitry Impostor (1605-1606 g) caused an uproar, as a violation of the customs of his native country. Originally this prohibition was caused by the concern of the farmer about saving young animals.
Only in the late eighteenth century veal became a decoration of the Banquet tables of the nobility.
Pork and veal used in Russian food a lot earlier than beef . In the written monuments of the XVII century, lamb and pork are mentioned more often than beef. In “Domostroi” is already given recommendations on the rational use of the individual parts of the carcass of mutton.
Much love used and was considered a dainty dish of meat giblets.
Naturally, already in the IX-x centuries techniques were developed prigotovleniya complex meat dishes.
To prepare steamed and boiled dishes of meat and meat products is usually sliced or chopped. S. Kokovtsev and V. Levshin at the end of the seventeenth century described the old, already forgotten Russian cuisine, i.e. the period of the XVI – XVII centuries.
It should be noted that many religious taboos associated with meat food, are clearly sanitary and preventive nature. So, the biblical rules prohibit eating dead flesh and meat neobiknovennie. These prohibitions are found in the instructions of the Russian Church. For example, in the book “Stoglav” was strictly forbidden to eat neobiknovennie meat, blood sausage, carrion (1561). However, in “Stoglav” there is no ban on pork, hares, swans and many other meat animals. High was in Ancient Russia culture and sanitary slaughtering and storage of meat.
Until the XVIII century slaughter of cattle in Russia was carried out in butcher’s shops without any supervision and control. Only in 1718 g in St. Petersburg by decree of Peter I was established to supervise the slaughter in the shops — slaughterhouses. But in 1719 it was prohibited to slaughter.
In 1846 a Committee was formed to draft a model slaughterhouse. However, the funds for their construction the Council allocated only in 1879 and they were opened in 1882, and That date can be considered the beginning of the ordering of the slaughter in Russia. Huge contribution to have made him master of veterinary Sciences M. A. Ignatiev. He also organized the first in Russia Museum of meat in a slaughterhouse, in which public lectures on food sanitation and conducted classes with students of the school of culinary arts of the Russian society of protection of the public health (M. A. Ignatiev. Lectures on Lesovedenie. “Our food”, 1891-1892).
The range and technology of meat dishes of Russian cuisine developed claims influenced by a number of factors, primarily the development of culinary technique.
As already noted, in the monuments of the XVI — XVII centuries are often referred to wiercenie chickens, ducks and rabbits. In recent years roasting poultry on skewers again found the widest application in our country and abroad: open the grill bars, grill restaurants, grills, cafes, etc. However, they fried the meat on the coals, and a modern gas or electric hearths, grills equipped with automatic regulation of time and temperature, the actuators for rotation of spits.
With the advent of pottery began to be used cooking, and with a Russian stove (about 3 thousand years ago) is firmly established in the life of the complex dishes cooked in the pots: boiled and stewed. They gave special flavor of Russian national cuisine. We can assume that originally they were a semi-liquid dish that was divided into course meals. These dishes can be found among all Nations: the Russians — ear and Kulesh, Central Asian shurpa, etc. Just half a century ago, in the peasant families for lunch was cooked one dish usually with meat, eat it the liquid portion, and then the meat.
Of course, after the baptism of Rus (988-989 years) the use of meat and Russian table was heavily restricted by religious prohibitions.
Among the cold meats of old Russian cuisine should be mentioned first of all ham with kvass, roasted fresh pork leg with horseradish kvass or garlic mashed brew, corned beef with horseradish, steamed pigs, all sorts of jellies, roast goose and venison, with pickles, salted, or pickled plums, lemon. Cold appetizers for holiday feasts designed especially carefully.
The common people had meat only on big holidays. Preserved the name of the dish: fried meat with onions — “feast”.
Relatively recently appeared and dishes such as vegetables stuffed with meat: stuffed cabbage, pumpkin, baked with meat, stuffed cabbage, etc. Have the pumpkin cut off the top, took out the core with seeds, then filled it with minced fried meat with onions, closed it, cut the top and baked it. Among the baked dishes were the most popular soup in the pan. They have been preserved to our cooking since ancient times without any changes.
The eighteenth century was a century of tumultuous change. They touched and kitchen appliances. Peter I introduced and use the stove.
A new technique has radically changed the range and technology for many dishes, primarily meat. Instead of frying large pieces and whole bird carcasses appeared the ability to cook small portions. Decreased the amount of boiled and stewed dishes, and the increased quantity of roasted. Many of these dishes were of foreign origin. So there was fillet, steak, the splint is set, klopsy, schnitzels, meatballs, etc.
Of course, the reform touched first the Palace kitchens, then the houses of rich people and only much later began to penetrate into the life of townspeople, and peasant cuisine she came only in the early XX century. Our restaurants also a long time kept the old traditions, and new dishes and they penetrated slowly.
Continued to improve and stews. Appeared goulash, stews and other dishes. However, with goulash in Russia there was a strange metamorphosis: in Hungary it is liquid veal soup with sour cream and it turned into dense main dish with sour cream and tomato.